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2019 May 8
Ezekiel 44

Image 1: Saint Augustine Sacrificing to a Manichaean Idol (c. 1480)
Unknown Flemish Master (fl. late 15th century)
Renaissance Style
Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands
Image Source: Web Gallery of Art


Image 2: The Temple Complex in Ezekiel (2004)
M. J. Beattie (copyright 2004)
Image Credit: Bible UCG

     [ Illustration: Today's First Image depicts idolatrous worship, the thing for which God reproved Israel in today's chapter (and in the rest of Scripture). The Second Image is a depiction of Ezekiel's Temple, showing the gates and other features. In today's chapter, much activity takes place in and around the various Temple gates.]


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     Explanation: In Ezekiel 44, God was residing in the Temple and his glory filled it. He took Ezekiel to the East Gate and gave him a series of instructions about who could enter the Temple and how they should conduct themselves within it.
     Duties of the Prince (1-5). The LORD commanded Ezekiel that East Gate was to be shut to everyone except the Prince. And he told Ezekiel to look carefully at the entrances and the exits of the Temple and to listen to all of the laws it.
     This exhortation is necessary because several matters in this and other descriptions of the Temple in other chapters are unclear. One unclear but very important matter is the identity of the Prince. He is mentioned prominently from chapter 44 to the end of the book (Ezekiel 44:3; 45:7, 16-17, 22-25; 46:2-18; 48:21-22). For various discussions of the Prince, I refer the reader to the commentaries.
     However, I will make some comments, some of which I have not seen elsewhere.
     First, in Ezekiel 44:3 note the emphatic nature of the statements regarding the Prince. The verse begins with the word "eth" which is a marker for the direct object. This word is usually ignored, but it can be translated "this," making the opening phrase, "This, the Prince." The phrase draws the reader's attention sharply to this person. The first part of the verse literally reads, "This, the Prince, a prince he-he shall sit in it to eat bread before Yahweh ..." and he shall go in and out by the porch of the gate.
     The East Gate is shut to all but the LORD and this Prince. So here is a triple emphasis on this person, first by the sign of the direct object, then by the double pronoun which is equivalent to "he himself," and then by being granted a privilege which no one else in the nation can claim -- exclusive use of the gate that is otherwise open only to the LORD together with the privilege of eating bread before the LORD. It is no wonder that many Jewish commentators considered this person to be the Messiah.
     However, other commentators have other ideas. Some think the Prince is David resurrected and exalted to be the LORD's vice-regent (Ezekiel 34:23-24; Ezekiel 37:24). Others think he is a prince who will be appointed in God's Millennial Kingdom.
     I will offer one additional comment on this matter; then the reader may turn to the Scriptures and to the commentaries. A key objection to the Prince being the Messiah, Jesus Christ, is that Ezekiel 45:22 says that he will provide a sin offering not just for the people, but for himself as well. It is true that Jesus Christ was sinless. This is affirmed by many Scriptures, such as Hebrews 7:26 and 2 Corinthians 5:21. But, when he made atonement for us, the Scripture says that "For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God." (2 Corinthians 5:21). Therefore, when he shed his blood, he washed away the sin which God laid upon him, cleansing himself from the defilement of our sin, and cleansing us from our defilement. So, it is in this sense that, if the Prince refers to Jesus Christ, the Messiah, it can be said that he provided a sin offering both for himself and for the people.
     Duties of the Levites (6-14). In this section of the chapter, the LORD rebukes Israel for polluting Solomon's Temple with idolatry and for bringing uncircumcised strangers into the Temple to perform the sacred duties which God had assigned only to the Levites.
     Duties of the Priests (15-31). Only the sons of Zadok were faithful to their duties. Therefore, only they will be allowed to continue those duties of offering fat and blood. The LORD then prescribed various laws for the priests to ensure their cleanliness. They were to be judges for the Israelites. The LORD also described their privileges and closed with an exhortation to avoid eating anything that dies of itself or is torn by wild animals.

     [ Sermons: Derek Thomas. Various. ]

Bible Chronologies -- Genesis to Revelation

[Traditional Patriarchal Chronology. Judges Period Chronology 1. Judges Period Chronology 2. Kings of Judah and Israel #1. Kings of Judah and Israel #2].

[Post Exile Chronology 1. Post Exile Chronology 2. Post Exile Chronology 3.]

[Prophets Chronology 1. Prophets Chronology 2. Prophets Chronology 3. Prophets Chronology 4.]

[Intertestamental Period Chronology 1. Intertestamental Period Chronology 2. Intertestamental Period Chronology 3.
Intertestamental Period Chronology 4. Intertestamental Period Chronology 5.]

[New Testament Chronology 1. New Testament Chronology 2. New Testament Chronology 3. New Testament Chronology 4. New Testament Chronology 5.]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Ezekiel 44: Ezekiel 33. Ezekiel 34. Ezekiel 35. Ezekiel 36. Ezekiel 37. Ezekiel 38. Ezekiel 39. Ezekiel 40. Ezekiel 41. Ezekiel 42. Ezekiel 43. Ezekiel 44. Ezekiel 45. Ezekiel 46. Ezekiel 47. Ezekiel 48. ]
[1] Ezekiel 44:3; Ezekiel 46:1; Ezekiel 42:14.
[2] Ezekiel 43:2-4; Exodus 24:10; Isaiah 6:1-5.
[3] Ezekiel 34:23-24; Ezekiel 37:24; Genesis 31:54; Exodus 18:12; Ezekiel 46:1-2; Ezekiel 46:8; Ezekiel 46:10; Ezekiel 46:12.
[4] Ezekiel 1:28; Ezekiel 3:23; Ezekiel 10:4; Ezekiel 10:18-19; Ezekiel 11:22-23; Ezekiel 43:3-5; Isaiah 6:3-4; Haggai 2:7; Malachi 3:1.
[5] Ezekiel 40:4; Deuteronomy 32:46; Ezekiel 43:10-11.
[6] Ezekiel 2:5-8; Ezekiel 45:9; 1 Peter 4:3.
[7] Leviticus 17:10; Leviticus 17:12; Numbers 15:14; Numbers 15:26; Numbers 15:29; 1 Kings 8:41-43.
[8] 1 Kings 12:31.
[9] Ezekiel 44:7; Ezekiel 47:22-23.
[10] Ezekiel 44:13; 2 Chronicles 11:13; Leviticus 21:17-23; Ezekiel 44:11-14.
[11] Ezekiel 40:45; 1 Chronicles 26:1; 2 Chronicles 29:34; 2 Chronicles 30:17; 2 Chronicles 35:10-11; Numbers 16:9; Numbers 18:6.
[12] 1 Samuel 2:29-30; 2 Kings 16:10-16; Hosea 5:1; Malachi 2:8-9; Ezekiel 14:3-4; Ezekiel 44:10, 13.
[13] Numbers 18:3; 2 Kings 23:9.
[14] Numbers 18:4; 1 Chronicles 23:28-32.
[15] Ezekiel 40:46; 1 Kings 1:7-8.
[16] Revelation 1:6; Numbers 18:7-8; Deuteronomy 33:8-10.
[17] Leviticus 8; Exodus 28:39-43; Exodus 39:27-29; Leviticus 16:4; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 19:8.
[18] Exodus 28:40-41.
[19] Ezekiel 42:13-14; Leviticus 6:10-11; Ezekiel 46:20; Exodus 29:37; Exodus 30:29; Leviticus 6:27; Matthew 23:17-19.
[20] Leviticus 21:5.
[21] Leviticus 10:9.
[22] Leviticus 21:7; Leviticus 21:11-14.
[23] Ezekiel 22:26; Leviticus 10:10-11; Micah 3:9-11; Zephaniah 3:4; Haggai 2:11-13; Malachi 2:6-9; 2 Timothy 2:24-25; Titus 1:9-11.
[24] Deuteronomy 17:8-13; 2 Chronicles 19:8-10; Leviticus 23:1-44.
[25] Leviticus 21:1-6; Leviticus 22:4.
[26] Leviticus 21:1-4; Numbers 19:11-17.
[27] Leviticus 4:3; Hebrews 7:26-28.
[28] Ezekiel 45:1-5; Numbers 18:20; Deuteronomy 10:9; Deuteronomy 18:2; Leviticus 2:3; Leviticus 6:25; Leviticus 6:29; Leviticus 7:6-7; Leviticus 27:21; Exodus 23:19; Exodus 34:26; Numbers 18:13; Deuteronomy 18:4; Numbers 15:19-21; Numbers 18:19.
[29] Leviticus 2:3, 10; Leviticus 6:14-18, 26, 29.
[30] Exodus 13:2, 12; Exodus 22:29; Exodus 23:19; Numbers 3:13; Numbers 15:19-21.
[31] Leviticus 22:8; Leviticus 17:15; Exodus 23:31; Deuteronomy 14:21.
     -- From Treasury of Scripture Knowledge & Others ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). PROVERBS: Book of Proverbs. ECCLESIASTES: Book of Ecclesiastes Dramatized. SONG OF SOLOMON: Song of Solomon Dramatized. ISAIAH: Isaiah Dramatized. JEREMIAH: Jeremiah Dramatized. LAMENTATIONS: Lamentations Dramatized. EZEKIEL: Ezekiel Dramatized. VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Ezekiel Detailed Outline

Ezekiel 44

Map 1: Bible Nations | Map 2: Empire of David and Solomon Map 3: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel | Post Exile Chronology.

3. After the Siege of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 33:1 - Ezekiel 48:35) - 586-570 B.C. Babylon

D. The Return Motif (37:1 - 48:35)

3). Renewal: The New Temple and the New Land (40:1 - 48:35)

a). The New Temple (Continued) (40:1 - 44:31)

     1 Then he brought me back [And he turned me] the way of the gate of the outward sanctuary which looketh toward the east; and it was shut. 2 Then said the LORD unto me; This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter in by it; because the LORD, the God of Israel, hath entered in by it, therefore it shall be shut. 3 It is for [this] the prince; the prince, he shall sit in it to eat bread before the LORD; he shall enter by the way of the porch of that gate, and shall go out by the way of the same.

     4 Then bought he me the way of the north gate before at the face of the house: and I looked, and, behold, the glory of the LORD filled [this] the house of the LORD: and I fell upon my face. 5 And the LORD said unto me, Son of man, mark well [mark well], and behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine ears [this] all that I say unto thee concerning all the ordinances of the house of the LORD, and all the laws thereof; mark well [and place your heart] to the entering in of the house, with every going forth of the sanctuary.

     6 And thou shalt say to the rebellious [bitter], even to the house of Israel, Thus saith the Lord GOD; O ye house of Israel, let it suffice you of all your abominations, 7 In that ye have bought into my sanctuary strangers [sons of a foreigner], uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in my sanctuary, to pollute it, even [this] my house, when ye offer [this] my bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken [this] my covenant because of all your abominations. 8 And ye have not kept the charge of mine holy things: but ye have set keepers of my charge in my sanctuary for yourselves.

     9 Thus saith the Lord GOD; No stranger [son of a foreigner], uncircumcised in heart, nor uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into my sanctuary, of any stranger [son of a foreigner] that is among the children of Israel.

     10 And the Levites that are gone away far from me, when Israel went astray, which went astray away from me after their idols; they shall even bear their iniquity. 11 Yet they shall be ministers in my sanctuary, having charge at the gates of the house, and ministering to [this] the house: they shall slay [this] the burnt offering and the sacrifice for the people, and they shall stand before them to minister unto them.

     12 Because they ministered unto [this] them before their idols, and caused the house of Israel to fall into iniquity; therefore have I lifted up mine hand against them, saith the Lord GOD, and they shall bear their iniquity. 13 And they shall not come near unto me, to do the office of a priest unto me, nor to come near to any of my holy things, in the most holy [holy of the holies] place: but they shall bear their shame, and their abominations which they have committed. 14 But I will make them keepers of the charge of the house, for all the service thereof, and for all that shall be done therein.

     15 But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept [this] the charge of my sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from me, they shall come near to me to minister unto me, and they shall stand before me to offer unto me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD: 16 They shall enter into my sanctuary, and they shall come near to my table, to minister unto me, and they shall keep [this] my charge.

     17 And it shall come to pass, that when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, whiles they minister in the gates of the inner court, and within. 18 They shall have linen bonnets upon their heads, and shall have linen breeches upon their loins; they shall not gird themselves with any thing that causeth sweat.

     19 And when they go forth into the utter court, even into the utter court to the people, they shall put off [this] their garments wherein they ministered, and lay them in the holy chambers, and they shall put on other garments; and they shall not sanctify [this] the people with their garments.

     20 Neither shall they shave their heads, nor suffer their locks to grow long; they shall only poll [shearing they shall shear] [this] their heads. 21 Neither shall any priest drink wine, when they enter into the inner court. 22 Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away: but they shall take maidens of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that had a priest before. 23 And they shall teach my people the difference between the holy and profane, and cause them to discern between the unclean and the clean.

     24 And in controversy they shall stand in judgment; and they shall judge it according to my judgments: and they shall keep my laws and my statutes in all mine assemblies; and they shall hallow my sabbaths.

     25 And they shall come at no dead person to defile themselves: but for father, or for mother, or for son, or for daughter, for brother, or for sister that hath had no husband, they may defile themselves. 26 And after he is cleansed, they shall reckon unto him seven days. 27 And in the day that he goeth into the sanctuary, unto the inner court, to minister in the sanctuary, he shall offer his sin offering, saith the Lord GOD.

     28 And it shall be unto them for an inheritance: I am their inheritance: and ye shall give them no possession in Israel: I am their possession.

     29 They shall eat the meat offering, and the sin offering, and the trespass offering; and every dedicated thing in Israel shall be theirs. 30 And the first of all the firstfruits of all things, and every oblation of all, of every sort of your oblations, shall be the priest's [priests']: ye shall also give unto the priest the first of your dough, that he may cause the blessing to rest in thine house. 31 The priests shall not eat of any thing that is dead of itself, or torn, whether it be fowl or beast.

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