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Discover the Arts! Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links

2018 November 23
Isaiah 1

The Defence of Saragossa (1850-1855)
Eugenio Lucas Velazquez (1817-1870)
Romanticism Style
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, Germany
Image Source: Wikipedia

     [ Illustration: Today's painting depicts a city which ultimately failed to defend itself against invasion -- a fate shared by Jerusalem, in accord with Isaiah's prophecy. ]


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     Explanation: In Isaiah 1, the prophet opens with an indictment of Israel for her sins and a declaration that for those sins her land was desolate, her cities laid waste, and if the LORD had not left them a remnant they would have been like Sodom and Gomorrah (1-9). The LORD then rebukes them for their offerings because they were polluted by their sins and tells them to put away their evil and learn obedience instead (10-20). Finally, he tells them that he will send judgments which will cleanse them of their evil (21-31).
     This first chapter (as well as chapters 2-6) have generated a great deal of discussion about the place of these chapters in the book and about the author and the time-frame involved. Accordingly, the book of Isaiah has been divided into two or three (or more) major sections by various commentators. Liberal commentators, following the Documentary Hypothesis, commonly postulate a different author for each section. Conservative commentators, following the theory of the Divine inspiration of Scripture, postulate Isaiah as the author of each of the 66 chapters of the book. Liberal authors cite literary factors (style, literary genres, etc.) as reasons for their view. However, conservative scholars, examining these same factors, see unifying literary factors which support the idea of a single author. Significantly, a trend has developed within the liberal camp (from whence it spread to other quarters) in which the commentators analyze the various Biblical books according to their present form rather than according to the presuppositions of the Documentary Hypothesis. When this is done remarkable unity of structure emerges within the various Biblical books. This is true also for Isaiah. David A. Dorsey, using this new approach, in his book The Literary Structure of the Old Testament (p. 234), finds, in Isaiah's 66 chapters, a seven part chiastic structure - a literary form of parallelism in which a succession of ideas leads up to an emphatic central point then repeats in reverse order.
     (In Dorsey's analysis, this structure is a-b-c-d-c'-b'-a'. See details below). Such a structure does not come about by assembling random documents into a single collection. It shows that the final form of the document came from one hand. Moreover, on a personal note (in regard to Isaiah), quoting from my unpublished syllabus "An Overview of Scripture" (2011): "Both of the main sections below [sic, chapters 1-39 and 40-66] end with a focus on Jerusalem's deliverance, first in Isaiah's day, then in the last day. They are grouped in 'cycles' - recurring patterns of prophecy - i.e., judgment / blessing; judgment / blessing; etc., in the first 39 chapters, then (in chiastic reversal) blessing / judgment; blessing / judgment; etc., in chapters 40 - 66." This analysis, like Dorsey's, suggests a single hand. Other postulated divisions (e.g., 1-39; 40-48; 55-66) do not exhibit this parallel focus on Jerusalem's deliverance. And, aside from the question of Isaiah's authorship (to which I hold), the Jerusalem focus suggests that the major divisions in the book should be 1-39 and 40-66.
     Note: As mentioned, both of the main sections Isaiah (1-39 and 40-66) end with a focus on Jerusalem's deliverance, first in Isaiah's day, then in the last day. They are grouped in "cycles" - recurring patterns of prophecy - i.e., judgment / blessing; judgment / blessing; etc., in the first 35 chapters, with a historical context in chapters 36 - 39 (which has the same judgment blessing emphasis as the preceding chapters), then blessing / judgment; blessing / judgment; etc., in chapters 40 - 66. This arrangement gives the book a chiastic pattern. David Dorsey, finds, in Isaiah's 66 chapters, a seven part chiastic structure. In Dorsey's analysis this is:

a. Introductory Messages of Condemnation, Pleading, and Future Restoration (1 - 12)
 b. Oracles to Nations: Humiliation of Proud King of Babylon (13 - 27)
  c. Collection of Woes: Don't Trust in Earthly Powers (28 - 35)
   d. CENTER: Historical Narratives Showing Yahweh's Supremacy Over All Earthly and Divine Powers (36 - 39)
  c'. Yahweh's Supremacy Over Idols: Don't Trust in Idols (40 - 48)
 b'. Servant Messages: Exaltation of the Humble Servant (49 - 54)
a'. Concluding Messages of Condemnation, Pleading, and Future Restoration (55 - 66

     [ Sermons: Eric Alexander. Various. ]

Bible Chronologies -- Genesis to Revelation

[Traditional Patriarchal Chronology. Judges Period Chronology 1. Judges Period Chronology 2. Kings of Judah and Israel #1. Kings of Judah and Israel #2].

[Post Exile Chronology 1. Post Exile Chronology 2. Post Exile Chronology 3.]

[Prophets Chronology 1. Prophets Chronology 2. Prophets Chronology 3. Prophets Chronology 4.]

[Intertestamental Period Chronology 1. Intertestamental Period Chronology 2. Intertestamental Period Chronology 3.
Intertestamental Period Chronology 4. Intertestamental Period Chronology 5.]

[New Testament Chronology 1. New Testament Chronology 2. New Testament Chronology 3. New Testament Chronology 4. New Testament Chronology 5.]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

[1] 2 Chronicles 26:1; 2 Chronicles 27:1; 2 Chronicles 28:1; 2 Chronicles 29:1; 2 Chronicles 30:1; 2 Chronicles 31:1; 2 Chronicles 32:1, 32; Hosea 1:1; Amos 1:1; Micah 1:1; Isaiah 2:1; Isaiah 21:2.
[2] Deuteronomy 30:19.
[3] Jeremiah 8:7; Deuteronomy 32:28-29.
[4] Deuteronomy 29:25; Deuteronomy 32:19.
[5] Isaiah 9:13, 21; 2 Chronicles 28:22.
[6] 2 Chronicles 6:28-29; Jeremiah 6:14; Jeremiah 30:12.
[7] Deuteronomy 28:33, 43, 48-52; Isaiah 5:5-6, 9; Isaiah 24:10-12.
[8] Isaiah 4:4; Lamentations 2:1, 6.
[9] Isaiah 10:22; Isaiah 17:6; Lamentations 3:22.
[10] Deuteronomy 32:32.
[11] Isaiah 66:3; Isaiah 66:3-4.
[12] Psalm 40:6; Micah 6:8.
[13] Malachi 1:10; Proverbs 21:27; Ephesians 4:30.
[14] Isaiah 61:8; Amos 5:21.
[15] Isaiah 59:2.
[16] Psalm 26:6; Jeremiah 4:14.
[17] Isaiah 1:23; Psalm 82:3-4.
[18] Psalm 51:7; Micah 7:18-19.
[19] Isaiah 3:10.
[20] Isaiah 3:11.
[21] Psalm 46:4; Jeremiah 2:20-21.
[22] Lamentations 4:1-2; Ezekiel 22:18-22.
[23] Isaiah 3:14; Deuteronomy 16:19.
[24] Isaiah 49:26.
[25] Revelation 3:19.
[26] Isaiah 32:1-2.
[27] Isaiah 5:16; Romans 3:24-26.
[28] Psalm 1:6; Psalm 104:35.
[29] Isaiah 31:7.
[30] Isaiah 5:6.
[31] Isaiah 43:17; Isaiah 34:9-10.
     -- From Treasury of Scripture Knowledge & Others ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). PROVERBS: Book of Proverbs. ECCLESIASTES: Book of Ecclesiastes Dramatized. SONG OF SOLOMON: Song of Solomon Dramatized. ISAIAH: Isaiah Dramatized. VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Isaiah Detailed Outline

Isaiah 1

Map 1: Bible Nations | Map 2: Empire of David and Solomon Map 3: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel | Post Exile Chronology.

1. Pre-Exile: The Judgment & Blessing Cycles ( 1:1 - 39:8 ) - 740-709 B.C., Israel
(These 2 Groups of Prophecies Concentrate First on Judah & Jerusalem then on the Nations.)

A. Cycles of Prophecy for Judah and Jerusalem (1 - 12)

Judgment: On Judah and Jerusalem - Desolation of their Land (1:1-31)

     1 The vision of Isaiah son of Amoz, saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

     2 Hear, O heavens,
and give ear, O earth:
for the LORD hath spoken,
I have nourished and bought up children,
and they have rebelled against me.
3 The ox knoweth his owner,
and the ass his master's crib:
but Israel doth not know,
my people doth not consider.

     4 Ah sinful nation,
a people laden with iniquity,
a seed of evildoers,
children that are corrupters:
they have forsaken the LORD,
they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger,
they are gone away backward.

     5 Why should ye be stricken any more?
ye will revolt more and more:
the whole head is sick,
and the whole heart faint.
6 From the sole of the foot
even unto the head
there is no soundness in it;
but wounds,
and bruises,
and putrifying sores:
they have not been closed,
neither bound up,
neither mollified with ointment.

     7 Your country is desolate,
your cities are burned with fire:
your land, strangers devour it in your presence,
and it is desolate,
as overthrown by strangers.
8 And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard,
as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers,
as a besieged city.

     9 Except the LORD of hosts
had left unto us a very small remnant,
we should have been as Sodom,
and we should have been like unto Gomorrah.

     10 Hear the word of the LORD,
ye rulers of Sodom;
give ear unto the law of our God,
ye people of Gomorrah.
11 To what purpose
is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me?
saith the LORD:
I am full of
the burnt offerings of rams,
and the fat of fed beasts;
and I delight not
in the blood of bullocks,
or of lambs,
or of he goats.

     12 When ye come to appear before me,
who hath required this at your hand,
to tread my courts?
13 Bring no more vain oblations;
incense is an abomination unto me;
the new moons and sabbaths,
the calling of assemblies,
I cannot away with;
it is iniquity,
even the solemn meeting.
14 Your new moons and your appointed feasts
my soul hateth:
they are a trouble unto me;
I am weary to bear them.
15 And when ye spread forth your hands,
I will hide mine eyes from you:
yea, when ye make many prayers,
I will not hear:
your hands are full of blood.
16 Wash you,
make you clean;
put away the evil of your doings
from before mine eyes;
cease to do evil;
17 Learn to do well;
seek judgment,
relieve the oppressed,
judge the fatherless,
plead for the widow.

     18 Come now,
and let us reason together,
saith the LORD:
though your sins be as scarlet,
they shall be as white as snow;
though they be red like crimson,
they shall be as wool.
19 If ye be willing and obedient,
ye shall eat the good of the land:
20 But if ye refuse and rebel,
ye shall be devoured with the sword:
for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

     21 How is the faithful city become an harlot!
it was full of judgment;
righteousness lodged in it;
but now murderers.
22 Thy silver is become dross,
thy wine mixed with water:
23 Thy princes are rebellious,
and companions of thieves:
every one loveth gifts,
and followeth after rewards:
they judge not the fatherless,
neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.

     24 Therefore saith the Lord,
the LORD of hosts,
the Mighty One of Israel,
Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries,
and avenge me of mine enemies:
25 And I will turn my hand upon thee,
and purely purge away thy dross,
and take away all thy tin:
26 And I will restore thy judges as at the first,
and thy counsellors as at the beginning:
afterward [after this] thou shalt be called,
The city of righteousness,
the faithful city.

     27 Zion shall be redeemed with judgment,
and her converts with righteousness.
28 And the destruction of the transgressors
and of the sinners
shall be together,
and they that forsake the LORD
shall be consumed.
29 For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired,
and ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.
30 For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth,
and as a garden that hath no [nothing of] water.
31 And the strong shall be as tow,
and the maker of it as a spark,
and they shall both burn together,
and none [nothing] shall quench them.

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